Theory

Citizen journalism, as a form of alternative sầu truyền thông, presents a “radical challenge khổng lồ the professionalized and institutionalized practices of the mainstream media”.

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<8>According lớn Terry Flew, there have sầu been three elements critical khổng lồ the rise of citizen journalism: open publishing, collaborative sầu editing, và distributed nội dung.

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<9> Mark Glaser, a freelance journadanh sách who frequently writes on new media issues, said in 2006:<10>The idea behind citizen journalism is that people without professional journalism training can use the tools of modern technology and the global distribution of the Internet lớn create, augment or fact-kiểm tra media on their own or in collaboration with others. For example, you might write about a thành phố council meeting on your blog or in an online forum. Or you could fact-kiểm tra a newspaper article from the mainstream media & point out factual errors or bias on your blog. Or you might snap a digital photo of a newsworthy event happening in your town and post it online. Or you might videotape a similar sự kiện and post it on a site such as YouTube.The accessibility of online truyền thông media has also enhanced the interest for journalism aý muốn youth và many websites, lượt thích "Far & Wide" a publication focusing on travel & international culture,<11> as well as WorldWeekly a news blog covering a range of topics from world politics lớn science,<12> are founded & run by students.In What is Participatory Journalism?,<13> J. D. Lasica classifies media for citizen journalism into lớn the following types:Other kinds of "thin media" (mailing lists, tin nhắn newsletters)The literature of citizen, alternative sầu, and participatory journalism is most often situated in a democratic context và theorized as a response to corporate news media dominated by an economic xúc tích. Some scholars have sought khổng lồ extend the study of citizen journalism beyond the Western, developed world, including Sylvia Moretzsohn,<14> Courtney C. Radsch,<15> và Clemencia Rodríguez.<16> Radsch, for example, wrote that "Throughout the Arab world, citizen journalists have sầu emerged as the vanguard of new social movements dedicated to promoting human rights và democratic values."<17>

"Citizen journalism" versus "grassroots media"

Some criticize the formulation of the term "citizen journalism" lớn describe this concept, because the word "citizen" has a conterminous relation to the nation-state. The fact that many millions of people are considered stateless and often, are without citizenship (such as refugees or immigrants without papers) limits the concept to lớn those recognised only by governments. Additionally, the global nature of many participatory truyền thông media initiatives, such as the Independent Media Center, makes talking of journalism in relation to lớn a particular nation-state largely redundant as its production & dissemination vị not recognise national boundaries. Some additional names given khổng lồ the concept based on this analysis are, "grassroots truyền thông," "people"s media," or "participatory truyền thông media."

Relationship lớn local journalism

Some major news reporting agencies, threatened by the speed with which news is reported and delivered by citizen journalism, have sầu launched campaigns khổng lồ bring in readers và financial tư vấn. For example, Bill Johnson, president of Embarcadero Media, which publishes several northern California newspapers, issued an online statement asking readers to lớn subscribe to lớn local newspapers in order lớn keep them financially solvent. Johnson put special emphasis on the critical role played by local newspapers, which, he argues, "reflect the values of the residents và businesses, challenge assumptions, và shine a light on our imperfections and aspirations."<18>
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