Part 1: What is "Serve and Return”?

You Are Here:Intro lớn Serve và Return

Part 2: How Do I "Serve and Return”?

This how-to lớn Clip breaks down serve sầu & return into 5 simple steps and features adults & young children doing each step together.

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Serve và return interactions shape brain architecture. When an infant or young child babbles, gestures, or cries, and an adult responds appropriately with eye tương tác, words, or a hug, neural connections are built và strengthened in the child’s brain that tư vấn the development of communication and social skills. Much like a lively game of tennis, volleyball, or Ping-Pong, this back-and-forth is both fun and capacity-building. When caregivers are sensitive and responsive sầu to a young child’s signals and needs, they provide an environment rich in serve và return experiences.

This simple five-step guide helps parents & caregivers learn how lớn “do” serve sầu & return with children. Also available in Spanish.

Because responsive relationships are both expected & essential, their absence is a serious threat khổng lồ a child’s development và well-being. Healthy brain architecture depends on a sturdy foundation built by appropriate input from a child’s senses and stable, responsive relationships with caring adults. If an adult’s responses to lớn a child are unreliable, inappropriate, or simply absent, the developing architecture of the brain may be disrupted, and subsequent physical, mental, và emotional health may be impaired. The persistent absence of serve & return interaction acts as a “double whammy” for healthy development: not only does the brain not receive the positive sầu stimulation it needs, but the body’s ức chế response is activated, flooding the developing brain with potentially harmful găng hormones.

The FIND program uses video coaching to lớn strengthen serve and return interactions between caregivers and children. Phokhổng lồ courtesy of FIND.

Building the capabilities of adult caregivers can help strengthen the environment of relationships essential to lớn children’s lifelong learning, health, and behavior. A breakdown in reciprocal serve sầu and return interactions between adult caregivers & young children can be the result of many factors. Adults might not engage in serve sầu và return interactions with young children due to lớn significant stresses brought on by financial problems, a laông chồng of social connections, or chronic health issues. Caregivers who are at highest risk for providing inadequate care often experience several of these problems simultaneously. Policies and programs that address the needs of adult caregivers and help them khổng lồ engage in serve và return interactions will in turn help tư vấn the healthy development of children.

Probably not. If diminished attention occurs on an intermittent basis in an otherwise loving and responsive sầu environment, there is no need for concern. Indeed, some developmental scientists suggest that variations in adult responsiveness present growth-promoting challenges that may help young children recognize the distinction between “self” & “other,” which is a necessary next step for moving toward greater independence & increasing capathành phố for self-care and problem-solving.

What makes serve sầu & return 'brain building'?

There is large amount of evidence from developmental psychology about the importance of contingent, reciprocal interaction (“serve sầu and return”) for many aspects of early childhood development (see Working Paper 1). But how vì chưng we know it actually “builds brains”? An increasing number of more recent studies, utilizing brain imaging and other new technologies, now document the impact of nurturing, supportive interaction & “sensitive sầu caregiving” on both brain function & structure. A sampling of these studies are cited below.

Xem thêm: Many Happy Returns Là Gì - 10 Câu Chúc Mừng Sinh Nhật Trong Tiếng Anh

“Neuroimaging revealed a neural mechanism by which language experience may influence brain development; namely, children who experienced more conversational turns exhibited greater activation in left inferior frontal regions (Broca’s area) during language processing, which explained nearly half the relationship between children’s language exposure và verbal abilities.”

Romeo, R.R., Leonard, J.A., Robinson, S.T. et al. (2018). Beyond the 30-million-word gap: Children’s conversational exposure is associated with language-related brain function. Psychological Science, 29(5), 700-710.

“Sensitive sầu parental care, characterized by prompt and adequate response khổng lồ the child’s signals and needs, predicts a more secure attachment relationship, higher levels of cognitive competence, and fewer psychological problems.”
“Parental sensitivity in early childhood was positively associated with markers of more optimal brain development at age 8 years, including a larger total brain volume, larger gray matter volume, và thicker cortices in the precentral, postcentral, caudal middle frontal, & rostral middle frontal gyrus.”

Kok, R., Thijssen, S., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. et al. (2015). Normal variation in early parental sensitivity predicts child structural brain development. Journal of the American Academy of Child và Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(10), 824–831.

“Variations in typical mother–infant interactions are associated with differences in infant brain volumes. Specifically, we found that lower maternal sensitivity was correlated with smaller subcortical grey matter volumes”

Sethna, V., Pote, I., Wang, S. et al. (2017). Mother–infant interactions and regional brain volumes in infancy: An MRI study, Brain Structure và Function, 222, 2379–2388.

“After considering age at imaging, household income và postnatal maternal anxiety, regression analyses demonstrated significant indirect associations between maternal sensitivity và bilateral hippocampal volume at six months. … Moreover, functional analyses revealed direct associations between maternal sensitivity và connectivity between the hippocampus và areas important for emotional regulation & socio-emotional functioning.”

Rifkin-Graboi, A., Kong, L., Syên ổn, L.W. et al. (2015). Maternal sensitivity, infant limbic structure volume và functional connectivity: A preliminary study. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e668.

Levy, J., Goldstein, A. và Feldman, R. (2019). The neural development of empathy is sensitive to caregiving & early trauma. Nature Communications, 10, 1905.

“7-mo-old infants activate auditory and motor brain areas similarly for native and nonnative sầu sounds; by 11–12 mo, greater activation in auditory brain areas occurs for native sầu sounds, whereas greater activation in motor brain areas occurs for nonnative sounds, matching the adult pattern. We posit that hearing speech invokes an Analysis by Synthesis process: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis that predicts the motor plans necessary to produce it. Both brain systems contribute to lớn the developmental transition in infant speech perception.”

Kuhl, P..K., Ramírez, R.R., Bosseler, A., Lin, J.L. và Imadomain authority, T. (2014). Infants’ brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111(31) 11238-11245.

“The quality of the interactions between parents và their children, measured with gesture and speech, is associated with advanced language development … Infants’ language learning is enhanced in one-on-one social contexts, perhaps because these contexts allow more contingent social interaction between adult and child. … Evidence is accumulating khổng lồ indicate a greater role for social interaction and social contingency in language learning. A large number of studies now suggest an important role for social behavior in language learning, among muốn them: (1) the necessity of a social context for phonetic learning from exposure khổng lồ a new language (Conboy và Kuhl, 2011; Kuhl et al., 2003); (2) the role of contingent response lớn infants’ babbling… (Goldstein et al., 2003; Goldstein và Schwade, 2008), (3) the role of social behavior (eye gaze) as a tactic that provides vital information for language learning in infants (Brooks và Meltzoff, 2008). … These findings contribute lớn our understanding of the social foundations of language, as observed in both typically developing & developmentally challenged young children, suggesting that language acquisition fundamentally requires social interaction lớn instigate learning (Kuhl, 2007; Kuhl, 2011; Kuhl, Coffey-Corimãng cầu, Padden, Munson, Estes, & Dawson, 2013).”

Ramírez-Esparza, N., García-Sierra, A. & Kuhl, P..K. (2014). Look who’s talking: Speech style and social context in language input khổng lồ infants is linked lớn concurrent & future speech development. In press: Developmental Science, 17(6), 880-91.

“Our findings, derived from the moment-to-moment tracking of eye gaze of one-year-olds and their parents as they actively played with toys, provide evidence for an alternative pathway, through the coordination of hands and eyes in goal-directed action. In goal-directed actions, the hands và eyes of the actor are tightly coordinated both temporally và spatially, & thus, in contexts including manual engagement with objects, h& movements & eye movements provide redundant information about where the eyes are looking. Our findings show that one-year-olds rarely look khổng lồ the parent’s face and eyes in these contexts but rather infants and parents coordinate looking behavior without gaze following by attending lớn objects held by the self or the social partner. This pathway, through eye-h& coupling, leads khổng lồ coordinated joint switches in visual attention và khổng lồ an overall high rate of looking at the same object at the same time, and may be the dominant pathway through which physically active sầu toddlers align their looking behavior with a social partner.”

Yu, C. & Smith, L.B. (2013). Joint attention without gaze following: Human infants và their parents coordinate visual attention khổng lồ objects through eye-hvà coordination. PLoS One, 8(11), e79659.

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